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Ortho substituents complicate due to steric influence as well. Meta substituents are not in through resonance with the carbonyl group of benzoic acid. Electron withdrawing group increases dissociation while electron donating decrease dissociation of benzoic acid. The influence is studied at a specific temperature 25 0 C and a specific solvent like water. Thus the relation can be expressed as. The relation between free energy and equilibrium constant is.

Using the above relation and substituting in the first equation. Introduction 1. The Hammett equation 1. The reaction constant p 1. The substituent constant a 1. The a 0 scale 1. The effect of solvent on a values 1. Problems 2 Elucidation of reaction mechanisms 2. Introduction 2. Modified substituent constants 2. The a- substituent constant 2. Diagnosis of reaction mechanisms 2. Aromatic nucleophilic substitution 2. Aromatic electrophilic substitution 2. Nucleophilic aliphatic substitution 2. Condensations of carbonyl compounds with amine derivatives 2.

Free radical and multicentre reactions 2. Conclusion 2. Problems 1 I I 7 n 17 20 24 27 27 27 28 31 33 38 40 49 57 63 66 67 3 The separation of inductive, resonance and steric effects; application of the Hammett equation to aliphatic systems 3. Introduction 3. The evaluation of inductive effects 3.

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Hammet equation-Linear free energy relation

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Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant

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  1. A modification of the Hammett equation for predicting ionisation constants of p-vinyl phenols..
  2. A modification of the Hammett equation for predicting ionisation constants of p-vinyl phenols..
  3. Supplementary files.

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