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Looking back over the past five years, we can also now say that they were right.

The struggle for democracy

All this has happened without any backtracking on democracy and liberal rights and freedoms, as has occurred in other countries in the region. Civil society and independent media have remained strong, and along with 14 international missions and almost , local observers, they helped ensure that the recent presidential election was peaceful, free, and fair. The candidate of the far-right Svoboda party received just 1. Ukraine is now the only country outside of Israel where both the President and the Prime Minister are Jewish, and by one measure, according to a recent Pew survey, anti-Jewish attitudes in Ukraine are among the lowest in the region.

No one could have predicted such progress.

This is not a reason for complacency, and I know that minority problems persist in this country as they do elsewhere. Since the state of Jewish security is often taken as a barometer for measuring the stability and well-being of a country or of the world more generally, it is not surprising that this crisis of democracy has been accompanied by a rise of anti-Semitism in Europe and throughout the world.

Last September Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks said in a debate on anti-Semitism in the British House of Lords that anti-Semitism becomes dangerous when three things happen: when it moves from the fringes of politics to the mainstream of a party and its leadership; when that party sees that its popularity with the general public is not thereby harmed; and when those who stand up to protest are vilified and abused for doing so.

In the Middle Ages, it was religion. So we had religious anti-Judaism. In post-Enlightenment Europe it was science. Today the highest source of authority worldwide is human rights. That is why Israel — the only fully functioning democracy in the Middle East with a free press and independent judiciary — is regularly accused of the five cardinal sins against human rights: racism, apartheid, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing, and attempted genocide. An example of this appalling development is that on March 18 in the UN Human Rights Council Israel was assaulted in seven biased reports and five hostile resolutions.

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The list could go on — Syria, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, and so forth. Why is Israel being singled out, if not because the U.

Struggle for National Democracy (Jose Maria Sison)

But Israel has been more often condemned by the United Nations and other international organizations than all other nations taken together. Despite all the troubles that Ukraine has, and I know that there are many, what has happened here over the past five years stands out as a hopeful example of democratic progress at a very uncertain moment in world history. There are positive changes taking place today in some other countries, such as Armenia, Ethiopia, and Malaysia, but the transitions there are fragile and have only just begun.

Ukraine is much farther along and seems able to sustain the progress that has been made.


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This is extremely important, not just for Ukraine but for the entire post-communist region and the world. This is a subject that is still not well understood or thoroughly researched, though important work has been done by Father Patrick Desbois. His seminal book, The Holocaust by Bullets , is based on interviews he conducted throughout the country with eyewitnesses to the mass killings, which began as the invading German army moved east in and its mobile killing units, the Einsatzgruppen , rounded up all the Jewish children, women, and men, shot them, and buried them in mass graves.

I have thought long and hard about whether I should address this issue in my remarks today. But Rabbi Andrew Baker of the American Jewish Committee, who has done pioneering work on the issue of remembering and memorializing the victims of the Holocaust in Ukraine, has encouraged me to speak about it.

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I feel almost a part of the Ukrainian struggle and therefore justified in speaking out about an issue of such importance to the well-being of the country. The second reason is that I have spoken many times about the Holodomor, which Ukrainians regard as their own holocaust. My concern about remembering the Holocaust does not involve any neglect of the horror of the Holodomor. Among the million brazilians, a quarter is covered by private health plans in a heterogeneous way, since the higher income sectors have plans with greater coverage of procedures and different hotel services.

Most of the plans are contracted by employers, and the employer's contribution, evidently, is passed on to the final price of the product or service and, therefore, paid by the final consumer.

By the condition of benefit, it is not taxed as income of the worker. The part paid for this, as well as for plans contracted directly by individuals, is deducted from gross income for tax purposes. There is, therefore, simultaneously, a waiver of collection and a 'tax' on hidden consumption.

Struggle for National Democracy - Jose Maria Sison - Google книги

Despite all the obstacles imposed to the SUS, chronic underfunding and economic policies that privilege servitude to the payment of interest and debt services, its implementation managed to change the logic and expand access, previously linked to merit: who paid social security had the right to medical care; the rest remained excluded from the system. With this, we changed from a contributory model to a universalism inspired by the Beveridgian model.

However, it should be recognized that we are far from having guaranteed access and quality care in health services. There are still thousands of people who wait months to be served in services of medium complexity, access to elective procedures is time-consuming, hospital beds are lacking, there are restrictions on access to medicines and procedures.


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But it is necessary to account for and celebrate the advances of a system that included thousands of people, expanded the service network, implemented basic care and configured itself as an important productive sector that generates jobs and activates the industrial park through the acquisition of inputs and health technologies. The enormous problems and challenges whose main causes are external to the health sector do not mean the failure or the infeasibility of the SUS. Neither, do they disqualify it as a public policy nor do they indicate that it is necessary to create another health system.

The awareness of the population of the right to health, in general, is shaped by the logic of consumption and guided by a media that does not favor social rights. A difficult task for individualistic times, but necessary if Brazil chooses, at this complex crossroads, the future path of a solidary and democratic society. Democracy involves a State model where social policies protect citizens and reduce inequalities.

Participatory democracy in the field of health is a guideline that values social participation, strengthens citizenship and contributes to ensuring the exercise of social rights, political pluralism and well-being as values of a fraternal, pluralist and unprejudiced society, as provides for the Constitution1.

Democracy and Disorder: The Struggle for Influence in the New Geopolitics

Our banner, today, is the intransigent defense of health as an expression of the struggle against social inequalities, as a universal right that materializes in its aspects of vigilance and attention in the SUS. Defense of a democratic State whose center for its development are people and populations, not market interests. The cooperation of the political elites in power and sectors of the judiciary and the Public Ministry with authorities from the United States, without the intermediary of the executive power, configuring an illegality, has as a direct consequence the dismantling of the oil and gas chain in the country and the weakening of the brazilian nuclear program.

The inflection in post-coup international relations of Brazil, with the emptying of the BRICS, the Southern Common Market Mercosur , the Union of South American Nations Unasur and automatic realignment with the United States, makes it clear that, in Brazil, an unconventional war occurred, where the people lost what little they had conquered.