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Antioxidant and cytotoxic studies for kaempferol, quercetin and isoquercitrin

Determination of hydrophilic antioxidant activity in plant and other extracts is more accurate and rigorous Arnao et al. Recent advancements in TEAC method has brought in numerous variants of the method which can be effectively employed for measuring the antioxidant activity of different compounds and samples efficiently.

This gives actual total antioxidant capacity and includes the potential scavenging effect of oxidation products. It can be used for tracking down unknown antioxidants in complex mixtures. The method is capable of determining both hydrophilic and lipophillic antioxidant properties and can also be used to determine the true total antioxidant capacity of a compound that is independent of the concentration of the antioxidant. The method can efficiently give a measure of the antioxidant activity of carotenoids, phenolics and some plasma antioxidants and for the direct measurement of the total antioxidant activity of Low Density Lipoproteins.

The reaction can be automated and adapted to microplates, flow injection and stopped flow. Amic and Lucic studied the reliability of TEAC values of flavonoids based on semiemirical quantum chemistry software package in modelling free radical scavenging activity. A good model of experimental vit C equivalent antioxidant capacity was obtained based on bond dissociation enthalpy and number of hydroxyl -OH groups.

All other models also had comparable fit and cross validated statistical parameters, as well as significant regression coefficients.

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Oxidation and Antioxidants in Organic Chemistry and Biology

Despite recent improvements and increased use, the TEAC assay has several limitations. However, in few cases, the TEAC value does not exactly correlate with the antioxidant activity. For e. Despite this, TEAC assay is useful for screening unknown antioxidants in complex mixtures Arts et al. Akoh, C. Min, Marcel Dekker, New York, Pages: Alaunyte, L.

5.6: Redox Reactions in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

Stojceska, A. Plunkett, P. Ainswaorth and E. Derbyshire, Improving the quality of nutrient rich Teff Eragrostis tef breads by combination of enzymes in straight dough and sourdough breadmaking. Cereal Sci. Lucic, Cano, J. Alcolea and M. Acosta, Estimation of free radical-quenching activity of leaf pigment extracts. Haenen, H. Voss and A. Bast, Food Chem. Rooney and R. Waniska, Anthocyanins from black sorghum and their antioxidant properties. Vorobiev, V. Deloison, F. Pochez, A. Falcimaigne-Cordin and J.

Environmental Pollution and Control, Fourth Edition

Lanoiselle, Valorisation of grape pomace by the extraction of phenolic antoxidants: Application of high voltage electrical discharge. Packer, Handbook of Antioxidants. Cano, A. Acosta and M. Arnao, A method to measure antioxidant activity in organic media: Application to lipophilic vitamins. Redox Rep. Alcaraz and M.

Free radical-scavenging activity of indolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic media. Benavente-Garcia, J. Lorente, M. Alcaraz, A.


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Redondo, A. Ortuno and J. Del Rio, Antioxidant activity and radioprotective effects against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by X-rays of flavanols Procyanidins from grape seeds Vitis vinifera : Comparative study versus other phenolic and organic compounds. Plumb, R. Bennett and Y.


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  6. Bao, Antioxidant activities of extracts from five anti-viral medicinal plants. Yan, Y. Li and W. Chang, Determination of antioxidant activity of phenolic antioxidants in a Fenton-type reaction system by chemiluminescence assay. Antioxidants for Food Use. In: Autoxidation and Antioxidants, Lundberg, W. Wiley, New York, pp: Drobiova, H.

    Thomson, K. Al-Qattan, R. Peltonen-Shalaby, Z. Al-Amin and M. Ali, Garlic increases antioxidant levels in diabetic and hypertensive rats determined by a modified peroxidase method. Based Compl. STSM Report. Frankle, E. Meyer, The problems of using one-dimensional methods to evaluate multifunctional food and biological antioxidants.

    Food Agric. Santos-Buelga and J. Rivas-Gonzalo, Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of fruits. Gutteridge, Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Halliwell, B. Aeschbach, J. Lo Liger and O. Aruoma, The characterization of antioxidant. Ou and R. Prior, The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. Milardovic, M.

    Roboz and B. Grabaric, Evaluation of the antioxidant activity by flow injection analysis method with electrochemically generated ABTS radical cation. Analyst, Binh, H. Asakura, Y.

    Free radicals and antioxidants (HD)

    Hibino, Y. Hitomi, H. Nakamura and K. Ogino, Efficient assay for total antioxidant capacity in human plasma using a Well microplate. Ozcelik and S. Saner, Review of methods to determine antioxidant capacities. Food Anal. Methods, 2: Sarnthima, Laccase-aided antioxidant activity assay and antioxidant activity of selected thai vegetables. Applied Sci. Pu, Klaunig oxidative stress analysis laboratory.

    Lee, J. Ozcelik and D. Food Sci. Wood and M. Garg, Methodology for the determination of biological antioxidant capacity in vitro : A review. Shahidi, Antioxidant potential of barley as affected by alkaline hydrolysis and release of insoluble-bound phenolics. Segundo, S.

    Reis and J. Lima, Methodological aspects about in vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties. Acta, Schieber, D. Kammerer and R. Carle, Residues of grape Vitis vinifera L. N'Dri, E. These electrophiles react with nucleic acids and proteins and adducts formed have properties that are altered from the naturally occurring nucleic acids and proteins. We are developing procedures to prepare naturally occurring electrophiles derived from free radical oxidation of phospholipids and cholesterol esters and we are studying the reactions of these electrophiles with peptides and proteins.

    Critical to this research is the development of new strategies for identification of lipid-protein adducts by proteomics mass spectrometry methods. Another theme of our collaborative research is to define the products of polyunsaturated lipid oxidation and determine the mechanisms by which these compounds contribute to human disease. The over-arching hypotheses that govern the research are that the balance of competing oxidation pathways for different lipid substrates governs adaptation to oxidative stress and oxidative injury by controlling the distribution of bioactive lipid oxidation products.

    We are studying the reactions of free radicals in lipoproteins and we are examining the effects of antioxidants on these processes. This type of biological oxidation is a beneficial process that creates energy for an organism. However, other forms of biological oxidation can harm an organism. These interactions involve oxidants that damage biological material such as DNA and protein, contributing to degenerative diseases. These oxidants appear by natural processes such as an organism's metabolism. Negative forms of oxidation such as this, have generated a plethora of health information pertaining to substances that can help offset the interactions.

    These counteracting substances are called antioxidants. The antioxidants that combat the effects of harmful biological oxidation come in the form of compounds; and appear in various foods, herbs and extracts. A few of these antioxidants include vitamins C, A and E; selenium; beta carotene and grape seed extract. These and other can be obtained by consuming fruits, vegetables and nutritional supplements.

    Andrea Sigust began writing professionally in , authoring user-friendly manuals, reference guides and information sheets while working at a hospital. After years of working in industries ranging from health care to telecommunications, Sigust became a writer.