Housing market renewal is one of the most controversial urban policy programmes of recent years. Housing Market Renewal and Social Class critically examines the rationale for housing market renewal: to develop 'high value' housing markets in place of the so-called 'failing markets' of low-cost housing. Whose interests are served by such a programme and who loses out? Drawing on empirical evidence from Liverpool, the author argues that housing market renewal plays to the interests of the middle classes in viewing the market for houses as a field of social and economic 'opportunities', a stark contrast to a working class who are more concerned with the practicalities of 'dwelling'.
Against this background of these differing attitudes to the housing market, Housing Market Renewal and Social Class explores the difficult question of whether institutions are now using the housing market renewal programme to make profits at the expense of ordinary working-class people. Reflecting on how this situation has come about, the book critically examines the purpose of current housing market renewal policies, and suggests directions for interested social scientists wishing to understand the implications of the programme.
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Housing Market Renewal and Social Class provides a unique phenomenological understanding of the relationship between social class and the market for houses, and will be compelling reading for anybody concerned with the situation of working class people living in UK cities. Here at Walmart. Your email address will never be sold or distributed to a third party for any reason.
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What is Gentrification?
First, area regeneration fostered a by residents as valuable informal meeting places. In local sense of community at all case study areas. Second, both areas there were also a few formal community all three areas experienced important changes in terms venues, most notably the Cornerstone in Langworthy of ethnic composition, with new migrant populations, North, a new state of the art community facility built mainly from Eastern Europe, coming into the areas.
There were not many places as such It was generally agreed that the regeneration process at the Triangles and local residents relied on wider area had contributed to consolidate the existing community community facilities. We active community groups and initiatives in Langworthy found some evidence of this in North Benwell where North and 16 in North Benwell. Moreover, at both despite a generally acknowledged strong sense of Langworthy North and North Benwell, and in contrast community, local residents mentioned little commu- to the Triangles, a range of front-line jobs, such as street nication and ties among the various local ethnic wardens, community police officers and park keepers, communities and key actors expressed concerns about which offered a human link and a neighbourhood presence, were established throughout the regeneration Community in three areas combined process.
Indicators of community as perceived by residents in three Perceptions of local crime and safety were more areas combined. Yes many e. SALT office, communal Yes many e. RMI office; Limited e. Yes e. They felt safer as a result between and in each area. Small changes of less reported crime, public realm improvements such across all housing sectors were noted at Langworthy as better street lighting and surfacing, and better North and North Benwell and more significant changes channels to report crime including neighbourhood at the Triangles.
At Langworthy North all three housing offices, street wardens and community police officers. The Triangles was the only area that shortfalls in funding and reconfiguration of regeneration experienced important changes across all tenures plans. Housing tenure at Langworthy North — Better-off households, in particular, are expected to contribute to an area by pressuring local Table 11 bodies and institutions for better services, monitoring Housing tenure at North Benwell — Shelter, Moreover, the population of Langworthy distributed evenly across the case study area.
In contrast, a recent study on Eastern European migration in HMR areas found that its impact was both Evidence from the three areas indicates, indeed, that beneficial, through stabilising areas of low demand and the positive impact of housing refurbishment-led improving community cohesion, and problematic, as a regeneration was less clear on local use of resources. This appeared to be the effect of an economic and qualifications that were supportive of achieving barrier in all three areas, by which the up-front cost was regional employment targets Pemberton, Second, it could be explained by Got better Stayed the same Got worse Don't know turnover in the privately rented sector, whereby current tenants were less likely to know about improvements Fig.
Indicators of use of resources as perceived by residents in carried out previously to their time at the property. The areas combined. More efforts for an efficient consumption of local implement a measure or not. Nevertheless, a majority of resources were noted at the Triangles than at residents across the three areas felt that their homes Langworthy North and North Benwell where less were more energy-efficient and they recycled more coordinated approaches were noted.
Most houses received double compared to national figures, in contrast to Wirral glazing, roof insulation, draught-proofing and central council which lagged behind Audit Commission, Area heating, and the whole scheme committed to using local Profiles. Moreover, Newcastle came first in a recent and low-maintenance construction materials.
Residents in all three areas showed energy-efficiency measures were inconsistently and some awareness regarding energy use in their homes sparingly applied throughout successive regeneration only when specifically questioned about various initiatives. The most easily general lack of public awareness EST, , which recognisable and reported energy-efficiency measures could be, per se, a consequence of the less well- were double glazing, loft insulation and energy saving documented evidence and government support on the bulbs.
Few residents commented or knew if they had subject. Financial incentives and public subsidy have room thermostats or water tank insulation. This been less publicised and promoted for water saving than evidence suggests that the insufficient knowledge of for energy efficiency and waste recycling SDC, Findings from the measures at their properties than other residents. Water butts were the Triangles, private tenants at the Triangles were installed at Langworthy North and water meters were likely to be more informed about measures implemen- initially discussed at both North Benwell and the ted in their homes than those at North Benwell.
This Triangles, but never implemented due to high costs. Some of the local facilities and services leak at the next door property and wondered whose were demolished or closed down, few were built or responsibility was to stop water waste. All three areas progressed notably in terms of waste Previous research showed that local services and recycling, from being basically non-recycling areas to facilities might be struggling in the early years of a areas where waste recycling was publicly promoted and regeneration scheme, particularly where demolition had acknowledged by local partners and residents.
Housing market renewal and social class formation
We found they recycled more waste in their homes as a result of evidence of this in all three areas, and particularly at measures implemented during the regeneration of the Langworthy North and the Triangles where consider- area. In all three areas, door-step waste recycling able demolition had already taken place or had been schemes had only been running for a relatively short proposed. These schemes were supple- North Benwell where many shops, facilities and mented by a monthly Skip Day in Salford and an annual services catered for the large ethnic minority popula- Week of Action in Newcastle.
Our discussions with key tion. Yet some residents commented about the area. Some local shops and services were lost during more waste following regeneration at the Triangles is the regeneration process in all three areas. At particularly noteworthy. This could have a twofold Langworthy North, some of the local shops and explanation: first, the newness of the recycling scheme businesses were relocated following demolition, while in comparison to the other two areas and second, the the local primary school was awaiting demolition.
In North Benwell, disappearing smooth-running, coordinated waste collection and traditional high street shops were replaced at a fast pace management services. By contrast, both the other areas by ethnic minority-led businesses. However, an complained about unreliable collection services, and at important North—South link bus line running through North Benwell, the area with the lowest percentage of the middle of the area had been cancelled and the nearby people saying that they recycled more following regeneration, waste collection seemed to be hindered Local facilities and services in three areas combined by high population turnover and differences reflected In Local services and facilities general 43 40 17 cultural practice.
Public transport 42 57 2 6. Local services and facilities Local services and facilities can contribute to the Access to local GP 34 52 9 5 vitality of an area. Barton et al. Local Access to school 22 53 5 20 shops, schools, surgeries, pubs, police, social services. We found that the impact of Got better Stayed the same Got worse Don't know urban intervention on local services and facilities was Fig. Indicators of local services and facilities as perceived by uncertain across the three areas. Generally, local residents in three areas combined.
At the and more reliable links to the city centre. Urban Triangles, the threat of demolition in the immediate regeneration plans in all three areas relied mainly on surrounding area kept potential services and businesses already-existing and well-established public transport at bay, shops kept closing down and residents had to infrastructure and provision.
They often cited more buses, better and Yet, in North Benwell, the school was somewhat more reliable service. Open spaces Spangenberg, Drawing regeneration as a result of increased car traffic and governance into the sustainability debate is in fact, a chaotic car parking arrangements. Residents central prerequisites for change towards more sustain- also thought that little had been done to improve local able development. Governance has different meanings to different Residents complained about local GPs and health people but has broadly been defined as the intersection services closing down in all three areas.
We acknowledge these wider definitions thought that access to local health services actually got but focus primarily on some of the governance better following regeneration and residents at the mechanisms that help urban policy making and Triangles, where a new state-of-the-art medical centre implementation at local level such as: community was built nearby, were more likely to think so than those action, partnerships arrangements and local authority living at Langworthy North and North Benwell. Community actual 41 49 10 participation in mechanisms of local governance is central in three ways.
First, it plays an important role in Community involvent improving public services, by strengthening the hand of influence decission 30 57 13 making service providers petitioning for more or flexible resources. Lownsbrough, She also argued that the closer a community is to the top involvement in local life. It also found that an important of the pyramid, the more effective its involvement becomes.
In contrast, at the top of the ladder, citizens can negotiate and and exert influence DCLG, a. A felt that community cohesion was undermined by an number of studies have praised the partnership and increased cultural and ethnic diversity and transient multi-level working arrangements of recent regenera- populations who lacked the motivation to invest in their tion initiatives Audit Commission, a; Cole, ; area.
In contrast, higher levels at Langworthy North Shelter, These have usually included local public area are linked to age — younger 16—24 and older over authorities such as local councils and social landlords, 65 populations — and lower levels of qualifications. Their than other ethnic groups and whites to agree that they role has been to provide leadership, create a vision and can influence decisions in their areas DCLG, b. Bangladeshi private investment.
Yet three difficulties are associated groups have long been associated with lower educa- more generally with local partnerships. First, large tional attainment, qualifications and occupations Phil- multi-agency partnerships tend to marginalise the lips, Second, decisions about their area in North Benwell. The local The latest number of ways at Langworthy North and North national survey of user satisfaction and local govern- Benwell. We equally orchestrated the regeneration of the area and found that satisfaction with council services was similar advocated its priorities. In contrast, no such partner- been seen as one of the strengths of recent urban ship was present at the Triangles.
Yet levels of resident satisfaction were lower over wider areas, which, per se, pointed to one of the than at the other two case study areas, a result, perhaps, limitations of partnership arrangements, the tendency to of mixed views regarding the impact of the nearby marginalise resident involvement.
Discussion North Benwell appeared to be the second most sustainable area: it faced up to the challenge of a 7. All three areas have generally improved the regeneration of the area was an important factor in following urban regeneration intervention. They offered the general make-up of the area and the sustainability of better housing, in a generally cleaner and safer the local community. Stigma had been reduced or overcome The Triangles area, in contrast to the previous two at all three areas as a result of reductions in crime levels areas, seemed to be the slowest in its progress towards and better area image and perceptions, house prices and sustainability.
The community was at the centre of an land values raised. Community cohesion had been area proposed for clearance, hence few employment strengthened and local residents seemed satisfied with opportunities were to be created in the short and their neighbourhoods and homes. However, we have medium term, crime and safety were still major also found that all three areas needed further support concerns for local residents, private landlords seemed and guidance: local economies were still struggling and to take hold of the local housing market, and local local residents found it difficult to adjust to economic services and facilities were few and further away.
A few last thoughts are worth noting here. Despite Comparisons among the three areas, however, some overall progress noted across the three areas, they suggested a number of distinctions. They all had all needed further investment and monitoring of their different industrial legacies, history of regeneration development towards sustainability, especially so in the investment and local partnerships, degrees of local aftermath of the economic recession. Among the government involvement and visions to achieve lessons learnt here, some discussed in more detail sustainability. Moreover, resi- Langworthy North seemed to be the most sustainable dent-based assessments of local sustainability play an area among our three selected areas and to continue its important role in understanding the underlying condi- progress towards sustainability: it offered good links tions of urban sustainability and highlighting the needs into nearby job markets, new private development and aspirations of urban communities.
More- bringing back economic prosperity in these urban areas. Their neglect could lead to crime, anti- government in England. On the civil sector players. However, we In , the Audit Commission published its final also have to acknowledge here that a number of more strategic reviews on the HMR Pathfinders which recent studies raise fundamental questions about the highlighted the risks associated with the programme robustness of the rationale behind the HMR intervention ending at area level.
A rather phased withdrawal Minton, ; Webb, Yet of stage for continued support and funding. This is, perhaps, an inevitable and thus www. Other approaches have also been tried. Younger and better-off forming Regenerate Pennine Lancashire which imple- people seemed to be moving into these areas, keen to ments major developments on behalf of surrounding seize the opportunity of climbing onto the property local authorities. In Newcastle and Gateshead, the ladder or securing an easy investment return.
Students HMR Pathfinder is helping to set up joint venture were also moving in and out of these areas, which were vehicles in both constituent councils, while in sought for their cheap rental accommodation and Birmingham and Sandwell and North Staffordshire proximity to academic institutions or city centres. A partners are exploring the possibility of setting up notable number of Eastern Europeans had also moved Local Asset Based Vehicles to create an investment into all three areas in the last ten years. More recent stream. Another option available is to bid for funding evidence, however, shows that the impact of economic from other funding streams now in existence or recession has been more pronounced in HMR areas than announced, including the New Homes Bonus and the other urban areas Audit Commission, ; Parkinson Regional Growth Fund.
These, however, will only et al. This means that despite a short period of finance a limited level of regeneration and are available stabilisation, these areas may start again to lose across the country. What will be the impact of these new population. House prices The extent of community involvement and local rocketed almost overnight and some local residents governance mechanisms will probably diminish as feared for themselves or their families being pushed out some of the community organisations and projects, of these areas, as a result of falling local housing local partnerships and arrangements will cease to exist affordability and increasing costs of living.
Better-off in these areas; neighbourhood offices may close doors people and landlords appeared to be moving in and as a and more importantly the funding for current neigh- result some local residents found it difficult to improve bourhood management arrangements, including street their housing situation within the area. This seemed wardens and police patrols may be lost in the light of problematic at the time in these urban areas of close- current spending cuts. All these may mean that knit communities, where younger generations expected communities in these urban areas will be less involved to continue living near friends, family and relatives.
By in the making of their areas, less well managed and , however, the gap in house prices between HMR more importantly feel less safe in their homes and areas and their respective regions has started to grow neighbourhoods. By October , however, how cuts apart again and the number of house sales has rapidly will exactly affect the three urban areas and which declined Audit Commission, — while area services will curtail or disappear was not clear.
Yet keeping the regeneration intervention can drive positive change and momentum and securing investment for this type of progress towards sustainability in these areas. Access to jobs and job prospects was greatly enhanced when 8. Conclusions intervention areas were linked into wider areas and job markets.
Langworthy North was a successful example Several important lessons could be drawn in regard because of its proximity to and links with Salford Quays to the effect of public urban intervention on the local and Manchester City Centre, supported by an efficient sustainability of urban areas. These lessons are and fast transport link. The strength of the Manchester important for both future urban regeneration policies job market was instrumental in improving Langworthy as well as the wider urban sustainability agenda.
Overall, however, little has highlight: been created in terms of the forecasting and timeframes of possible employment opportunities in all three areas. A greater integration between this and other policy areas majority of residents acknowledged the role played by such as employment and education; the regeneration process in disseminating information, - the importance of continued support and work, and via leaflets, local newsletters and offices, establishing long-term models for developing sustainable urban and supporting local training and skills courses.
The wider context There is a need for greater integration of education and urban policy and initiatives in delivering sustain- The sustainability of local areas and the wider urban able urban areas. The sustainability of a information about urban areas and could contribute to particular urban area should be seen in the context of building a more accurate picture about the needs of an city, region and even national sustainability as a whole: urban community.
In all public urban intervention on these areas. However, the three areas, schools benefited little by way of additional lesson learnt here is that both the sustainability of an resources and were only marginally involved in the area and the impact of urban regeneration cannot be overall regeneration plans for the area.
In North examined in isolation, but in relation to wider aspects of Benwell and the Triangles, the two local primary sustainability and cities. Moreover, for many years schools were under pressure to play a larger role in the urban regeneration has been seen as a means for community by hosting services and facilities for local physical upgrading of targeted areas.
However, based on need better understanding and implementation at local evidence from other studies, community involvement is level. Yet little energy efficiency training or public awareness 8. Continuing investment and support campaigning was pursued throughout the regeneration process. Double glazing and loft insulation were Deprived urban areas need long term visions, installed in many properties but not in a coordinated sustained investment and commitment to tackle often way and did not always reach the private rented sector.
Recent research calls for the homes, recycling schemes were not always well continuation of regeneration of the former industrial managed and were challenged by the lack of adequate cities in the Midlands and the North of England storage space and poor practice, especially in areas with Hastings et al. This paper complements these studies.
We found Urban regeneration improves the condition and that urban regeneration has had an overall positive standard of the overall housing stock, but less so in the impact on the sustainability of all three areas. Yet they case of the private rented sector which needs more all needed in one form or another either extra work and attention and, perhaps, regulation. The pattern of regeneration investment, privately were less likely to be satisfied with their including its length and continuity and how local homes than those living in social housing, while private priorities are addressed in the wider context, has an landlords were more difficult to co-opt into regeneration important role in securing the sustainability of urban agreements and less likely to improve their properties.
While the New showed that the outcomes of urban intervention Labour government provided ring-fenced funding materialise after relatively long-term investment, gen- programmes to enable the Decent Homes target to be erally 20 or 30 years. Moreover, governments timescale met for social housing, there were no equivalent do not coincide to those of urban programmes and even dedicated funding for improving private sector homes to less with those of sustainable urban development.
Areas a decent standard. Local councils were allocated and communities with long-term and on-going regenera- Regional Housing Pot Grants with the expectation that tion investment such as Langworthy North and North they were used to improve the condition of the private Benwell were doing better; they had a better overall sector housing stock. However they were unspecified sustainability outlook and a greater likelihood to continue capital grants and could be used for any form of capital moving towards sustainability than the Triangles which expenditure.
In practice, the use of these funds varied, benefited from short-term one-off regeneration invest- with some local authorities using the grant to improve ment. In other words, deprived communities in areas the condition of the private sector stock while others under sustained regeneration investment where local spent it for other purposes. A investment and a localised pool of resources. Across Germany due to a strong subsidy system alongside clear these two areas, front-line staff took on multiple regulation HM Treasury, a.
This is also fly-tipping. Palmer, While public funding may fund such schemes in the initial stages, there is a need to address long-term 8. People matter funding sources. Both Langworthy North and North Benwell, where such schemes were in place, struggled Community activity, an important aspect of area with longer-term funding arrangements.
Significant challenging tasks when regenerating urban areas. The levels of community activity were present in both North regeneration of existing inhabited urban areas offers Benwell and Langworthy North. The regeneration of less scope for adjusting the tenure or income mix by, for these areas was a catalyst for community involvement example, building new homes. In addition, in deprived and greatly contributed to community cohesion and urban areas, it is more difficult to impact on mix, which more sustainable areas and communities.
In all three critically depends on demand for housing but which is areas, regeneration was described as an important weak by definition. Demand for housing is a variable mechanism to bring together troubled communities and that policy makers can only indirectly influence, give them a voice. In both Langworthy North and North through changes to the housing stock, to the labour Benwell, strenuous efforts were invested in building market conditions and the appearance of the area.
We community activity in general. This was greatly found little change in the overall tenure mix in two areas supported through the establishment of local commu- and levels of home ownership across the three areas. Perhaps an important Two main challenges were uncovered in relation to area lesson is that building and sustaining community is not tenure mix.
First, both the Triangles and North Benwell easy in these urban neighbourhoods. It requires had buoyant buy-to-let markets which fed into a dedication, resources and effort, but it is important, significantly larger-than-average private rented sectors. It may additional private development at Langworthy North prove worthwhile to develop new tools and disseminate opened an avenue for area gentrification. All three areas agencies and deliver positive change. Urban refurbish- residents could refer problems with safety, cleanliness ment-led regeneration proved indeed to be a cheaper, and anti-social behaviour to a single, on-site office faster, less disruptive and oppositional option to which also supervised a range of front-line jobs, such as demolition and re-development.
Market renewal bulletin. Regeneration regeneration proved to revalue and give them a new developments and good practice Issue Audit Commission. Housing Market Renewal — Housing lease of life. London: Audit Commission. Barnes, M. Designing citizen-centred governance.
York: Acknowledgements Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Barton, H. Sustainable communities. The potential for eco-neighbourhoods. London: Earthscan. Shaping neighbourhoods. London: Spon Press. Environmental transformations in this research. The author is further grateful for the developing countries: Hybrid research and democratic policy. Beekam, T. Improving the understand- who have helped her to shape this paper into its current ing of the influence of owner occupiers in mixed tenure neighbour- format. Finally, the author would like to thank residents hoods. Edinburgh: Scottish Homes. Breaking through the glass ceiling: Who North Salford , North Benwell Newcastle and really cares about sustainability indicators?
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